By William R. Elkins
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Additional resources for A New English Primer: An Introduction to Linguistic Concepts and Systems
Linguistics and English Grammar (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965), p. 104. 6. H. , Ameri- can WriteTS in Rebellion: FTOm Mark Twain to DreiseT (New York: Hill and Wang, 1965), p. 98. Suggested Readings Note: Complete bibliographic information for each entry appears in Appendix C: Selected Bibliography. 1• Chapter 15, "Substitution," pp. 1, and Chapter 16, "Form-Classes and Lexicon," pp. 264-280. I• "Grammar As a Formal System," pp. 47-69. Francis, W. Nelson, The Structure of American English, 1958, Chapter 6, "Grammar, Part II: Syntactic Structures," pp.
He saw the bird) (the bird is beside the bush) He left his money at home. (he left money) (the money is at home) (he possesses money) Men in motion blurred the photograph. (men blurred the photograph) (men are in motion) The animal with the zookeeper is rare. (the animal is rare) (the animal is with the zookeeper) We should mention that the multiple base patterns are abstractions. We cannot be certain of the precise form a speaker may give to each; but we should observe that these base patterns are deep-structure syntactic components which through transformations create the surface-structure utterances.
The following passage from Bloomfield's Language offers an appropriate segment of language with which to illustrate noun determiners and the endocentric structures they create. The notation Dn appears above each noun determiner, and parentheses enclose each endocentric structure signaled by a Dn. Dn Dn (The types of noun expressions) which always have (a Dn determiner) are preceded, when (no more specific Dn determiner) is present, by (the articles), definite the On and indefinite a, whose meaning is merely (the classDo meaning of their respective form-classes).