A Planet of Viruses by Carl Zimmer

By Carl Zimmer

Viruses are the smallest dwelling issues recognized to technological know-how, but they carry the whole planet of their sway. we're such a lot conversant in the viruses that supply us colds or the flu, yet viruses additionally reason an unlimited diversity of different illnesses, together with one illness that makes humans sprout branch-like growths as though they have been bushes. Viruses were part of our lives for therefore lengthy, in truth, that we are literally half virus: the human genome comprises extra DNA from viruses than our personal genes. in the meantime, scientists are getting to know viruses far and wide they give the impression of being: within the soil, within the ocean, even in caves miles underground.

This interesting ebook explores the hidden international of viruses—a global that all of us inhabit. right here Carl Zimmer, well known technology author and writer of Discover magazine’s award-winning web publication The Loom, offers the newest study on how viruses carry sway over our lives and our biosphere, how viruses helped supply upward push to the 1st life-forms, how viruses are generating new illnesses, how we will harness viruses for our personal ends, and the way viruses will proceed to manage our destiny for future years. during this eye-opening journey of the frontiers of biology, the place scientists are increasing our knowing of existence as we all know it, we examine that a few remedies for the typical chilly do extra damage than solid; that the world’s oceans are domestic to an fabulous variety of viruses; and that the evolution of HIV is now in overdrive, spawning extra mutated lines than we care to imagine.

The New York occasions ebook Review calls Carl Zimmer “as high quality a technology essayist as we have.” A Planet of Viruses is certain to thrill his many fanatics and extra increase his acceptance as certainly one of America’s Most worthy and well-liked technology journalists.


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M. Bouziane · B. A. Bachir. Bouiadjra · B. Serier · S. Benbarek LMPM, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, BP 89, City Ben M’hidi, Sidi Bel Abbes 22000, Algeria B. fr B. A. Bachir. fr N. fr E. M. H. dz A. Öchsner and H. 1007/978-3-319-00479-2_4, © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013 41 42 M. M. Bouziane et al. Keywords THA • Bone cement • Bone inclusion • Micro-void • Crack • SIF • FEM Nomenclature α: Angle of the crack ν : Poisson ratio E: Young’s modulus F:  Load FEM: Finite element method KI: Mode I stress intensity factor KII: Mode II stress intensity factor Keff: Effective stress intensity factor LEFM: Linear elastic fracture mechanics PMMA: Polymethylmethacrylate SIF: Stress intensity factor THA: Total hip arthoplasty VCCT: Virtual crack closure technique 1 Introduction Cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the most popular method of osteoarthritis treatment and other disorders affecting the hip joint [1].

Properties of acrylic bone cement: state of the art review. J. Biomed. Mater. : Micro mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in bone cements. J. Biomed. Mater. : The Relationship Between Stress, Porosity, and Nonlinear Damage Accumulation in Acrylic Bone Cement. J. Biomed. Mater. Res 59, 646–654 (2001). : Effect of porosity and environment on the mechanical behavior of acrylic bone cement modified with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene particles: I. Fracture toughness. J. Biomed.

Lemons, J. : Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine, 2nd edn. : Preparation and bioactivity evaluation of bone-like hydroxyapatite nanopowder. J. Mater. Process. Technol. : Can bioactivity be tested in vitro with SBF solution? : How useful is SBF in predicting in vivo bone bioactivity? : Preparation and characterization of sol–gel bioactive glass coating for improvement of biocompatibility of human body implant. Mater. Sci. Eng. A. : An introduction to electrochemical corrosion testing for practicing engineers and scientists.

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