Activity Theory in HCI: Fundamentals and Reflections by Victor Kaptelinin, Bonnie A. Nardi

By Victor Kaptelinin, Bonnie A. Nardi

Task idea -- a conceptual framework initially constructed by way of Aleksei Leontiev -- has its roots within the socio-cultural culture in Russian psychology. The foundational notion of the idea is human job, that's understood as functional, mediated, and transformative interplay among humans and the area. because the early Nineteen Nineties, job idea has been a visual landmark within the theoretical panorama of Human-Computer interplay (HCI). besides another frameworks, similar to disbursed cognition and phenomenology, it validated itself as a number one post-cognitivist procedure in HCI and interplay layout. during this publication we speak about the conceptual foundations of job conception and its contribution to HCI research.
After making the case for conception in HCI and in short discussing the contribution of task thought to the sphere (Chapter One) we introduce the historic roots, major principles, and ideas of job idea (Chapter Two). After that we current in-depth analyses of 3 concerns which we ponder of designated value to present advancements in HCI and interplay layout, particularly: organization (Chapter Three), adventure (Chapter Four), and activity-centric computing (Chapter Five). We finish the e-book with reflections on demanding situations and customers for additional improvement of job concept in HCI (Chapter Six).

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At the sensory stage, organisms recognize and respond to isolated attributes of the environment. Most animals are at a more advanced, perceptual stage of development, at which they can recognize whole objects and their relations. For instance, when they see that an obstacle between them and a food is removed, they go to the food directly. These animals are able to develop sophisticated mental representations of problem situations in which they are immediately engaged. The concept of activity plays a crucial role in Leontiev’s analysis of the evolution of psyche.

One may need to respond to other people’s comments, learn new features of a word processor, such as styles or “Track changes,” or find information in physical or electronic archives. Therefore, the main criterion separating actions from operations is that operations are automatized. 2, can transform into one another. Automatization is an example of transformations between actions and operations. Over the course of practice actions can become automatic operations. The opposite process is “de-automatization,” the transformation of routine operations to conscious actions.

Development in activity theory is both an object of study and research strategy. As an object of study, development constitutes a complex phenomenon that can be analyzed at different levels. Examples of the levels of analysis include studying the development of various forms of animal activity in biological evolution (phylogenesis), emergence of specifically human forms of activity in social history (sociogenesis), individual development throughout various phases of life (ontogenesis), and appropriation of particular artifacts (instrumental genesis, Rabardel and Bourmaud, 2003).

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