Advances in space science and technology. Volume 5 by Frederick I. Ordway

By Frederick I. Ordway

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In one, the solar cells are mounted over the entire vehicle body. For this system the solar charge control consists primarily of small diode elements which effectively disconnect the cells shadowed by the vehicle body. In the second system the solar cells are mounted on paddles which are oriented to face the Sun. This is accom­ plished by using the roll axis of the vehicle to turn the paddles toward the Sun and by rotating the paddles so that they are always normal to sunlight. This system has the advantage of greater absorption efficiency for solar energy and requires fewer solar cells but does require active orientation elements in the satellite.

This exists because a single pair of wires are used to carry telephone messages in both directions. In short distance trans­ mission this echo is not bothersome, but in long distance transmission it is perceived, especially by the talker. Under severe conditions, when the echo is strong and the time delay is long, the presence of the delayed echo interferes with the talker's ability to speak, causing him to stammer, to speak more slowly, or even to stop speaking. As a result, it has been found necessary to set international standards for the magnitude of time delay and echo intensity.

As a result, there is as yet no agreed-upon preferred system. Agreements are expected, and will be reported in the technical journals, which should be consulted for the latest developments. VII. Status of Experimental Communication Satellite Programs [18] Two experimental satellite programs have been completed, and sev­ eral others are in progress. A. Completed Programs The completed programs are Score [19] and Echo 1 [20]. Score was an active repeater, primarily designed to operate in the delayed mode, with received signals recorded on magnetic tape and transmitted on command, when near the desired Earth terminal.

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