An Introduction to Simple Climate Models used in the IPCC by JT Houghton, LG Meira Filho, DJ Griggs and K Maskell (Eds).

By JT Houghton, LG Meira Filho, DJ Griggs and K Maskell (Eds).

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Extra info for An Introduction to Simple Climate Models used in the IPCC Second Assessment Report (IPCC Technical Paper II - February 1997)

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3) is based on the ratio of present-day global emissions to present-day forcing, as computed from an AGCM for a limited number of aerosol distributions. Since atmospheric aerosol concentrations vary directly and immediately with emissions, this contains an implicit relationship between concentration and forcing. The direct component of the forcing is assumed to vary linearly with concentration and hence with emissions, while the indirect forcing is assumed to increase more slowly than emissions, based on our understanding of the key physical mechanisms involved.

Schematic illustration of the treatment of well-mixed gases (CH4, N2O, halocarbons) in simple climate models. The removal rate is linearly proportional to concentration in the case of N2O and halocarbons, but varies non-linearly with atmospheric concentration in the case of CH4. Treatment of Carbon Dioxide Unlike the gases discussed in the preceding section, CO2 does not have a well-defined lifetime. 2). 3). , (1995) and Siegenthaler and Joos (1992) — ocean chemistry and vertical mixing processes are explicitly computed using the one dimensional upwelling-diffusion model or a variant of it.

4. SIMPLE CLIMATE MODELS USED IN THE IPCC SECOND ASSESSMENT REPORT In this section, we provide details concerning the specific SCMs and modules, and the associated assumptions, used in the SAR WGI. We begin with the computation of radiative forcing from emission scenarios, followed by the projection of global mean temperature change, and finally, the projection of future changes in sea level (as illustrated in Figure 4). 3). The quantitative relationships used are summarized in Appendices 1 and 2.

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