By Robert J. Matthys
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Additional resources for Crystal Oscillator Circuits
The value of the emitter resistor RI is set equal to about twice the crystal’s internal series resistance R,. When the crystal is tied in parallel with R,, the effective resistance of the emitter resistor is reduced at series resonance, since the crystal’s internal resistance R, is in parallel with RI. This raises both stage gain and overall loop gain to about 2X, and the circuit oscillates at the crystal’s series-resonant frequency. An advantage of this circuit is that the crystal sees a very low resistance load.
The output signal is larger because the impedance of the crystal’s current measuring element is larger. A basic schematic is shown in Fig. 12~. The crystal is driven by as low a source resistance as possible RI,. The crystal’s load consists of two small capacitors in series that act as a 5 to 1 voltage divider to isolate the amplifier’s resistive loading and overload peak-clipping effects from the crystal. The amplifier’s input stage is a FET in order to make the amplifier’s input resistance as high as possible and minimize resistiveloading effects on the crystal.
Additionally, there is no requirement for any specific ratio of C, to C,. Now, since the crystal’s shunt resistance has to increase as the frequency drops, two requirements can be met at the same time in the transistor circuit by holding C, fixed and varying RI inversely with frequency. Increasing R, really helps raise the crystal’s shunt resistance, because, in addition to increasing the input resistance of the emitter follower, it also raises the value of the biasing resistor Rblas. This technique of varying R I and holding C 1 fixed works very well in practice.